What Are the Signs of PTSD?

December 12, 2023

Someone walking the beach after learning about common symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder

Experiencing fear during and after a traumatic event is a natural response. Fear is an integral component of the body’s fight-or-flight mechanism, helping people avoid or respond to potential threats. Following a traumatic experience, individuals may undergo a variety of reactions, and for many, these symptoms will naturally diminish over time. However, individuals persistently grappling with symptoms may receive a diagnosis of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Read on to learn about the most common symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and how to get help for this mental health condition.

How to Know if You Have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Identifying the signs and symptoms of PTSD involves recognizing specific patterns of behavior, emotions, and thoughts that persist after exposure to a traumatic event. PTSD symptoms typically persist for more than a month and significantly interfere with daily functioning. If these symptoms endure and impact various aspects of your life, it may be indicative of PTSD. Consider the impact of these symptoms on your daily life. If your ability to work, engage in relationships, or enjoy activities has been significantly impaired, it may warrant further exploration.

If you frequently have distressing memories, flashbacks, or nightmares related to the traumatic event, this could be among the signs of a PTSD attack. Intrusive thoughts may significantly impact your daily life. Actively avoiding reminders of the trauma, such as places, people, or activities associated with the event, is another of the main PTSD symptoms. Avoidance can extend to discussions about the trauma as well.

Experiencing persistent negative thoughts about oneself, others, or the world, along with distorted blame or diminished interest in previously enjoyable activities, could be indicative of PTSD.

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Hyperarousal symptoms, including heightened irritability, difficulty concentrating, exaggerated startle response, and sleep disturbances, may suggest the presence of PTSD.

Notice how the symptoms affect your relationships with others. Difficulty forming or maintaining connections, trust issues, or challenges in intimacy is among the common symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. If you find yourself emotionally numb, detached, or unable to express a range of emotions, it could be an emotional response associated with PTSD.

Some people may experience PTSD through physical symptoms like headaches, gastrointestinal issues, or chronic pain. These physical manifestations can be connected to the psychological impact of the trauma.

Consulting with a mental health professional is crucial for an accurate diagnosis. A trained therapist or counselor can conduct a comprehensive assessment, considering various factors and providing personalized guidance based on your unique situation.

Keep in mind that experiencing some of these symptoms doesn’t automatically mean you have PTSD. That said, if you identify with several of these indicators and they persist, seeking professional help is a proactive step towards understanding and addressing your mental health.

A woman on her phone looking upset, showing the symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder

Common Signs of PTSD

PTSD can manifest in various ways, impacting individuals after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. While symptoms can differ, some common signs of PTSD include:

  • Flashbacks and intrusive memories: Recurrent and distressing memories of the traumatic event, intrusive thoughts, or vivid flashbacks can be indicative of PTSD.
  • Avoidance behaviors: Individuals with PTSD may actively avoid reminders or situations associated with the trauma, including places, people, or activities.
  • Negative changes in mood and thinking: Persistent negative thoughts about self or the world, distorted blame, or a diminished interest in previously enjoyed activities can be signs of PTSD.
  • Hyperarousal and hypervigilance: Heightened alertness, increased irritability, difficulty concentrating, and an exaggerated startle response are common signs of hyperarousal associated with PTSD.
  • Sleep disturbances: Trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing nightmares related to the traumatic event can be indicative of PTSD.

Signs of PTSD in Men

Men may exhibit specific signs of PTSD that reflect their unique experiences and responses to trauma. Some signs to be aware of include:

  • Anger and irritability: One of the most common symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in men is increased anger. This may manifest as mild irritability or aggressive behaviors.
  • Risk-taking behaviors: Engaging in risky activities, such as substance abuse or dangerous sports, can be a manifestation of PTSD in men.
  • Emotional numbing: Men may cope with PTSD by numbing their emotions, distancing themselves from feelings, or displaying a restricted range of emotional expression. This is often among the signs of PTSD from emotional abuse.
  • Physical symptoms: Some men may manifest PTSD through physical symptoms like headaches, digestive issues, or chronic pain.

Signs of PTSD in Women

Women may experience PTSD differently. Signs of PTSD in women may include:

  • Emotional flashbacks Experiencing intense emotions similar to those during the trauma, even without conscious memories, can be a sign of PTSD in women.
  • Avoidance of trauma reminders: Women may avoid trauma reminders, including conversations, places, or activities that evoke memories of the traumatic event.
  • Heightened startle response: An exaggerated startle response, increased jumpiness, or a heightened state of vigilance can be observed in women with PTSD.
  • Interpersonal challenges: Difficulties in forming and maintaining relationships, trust issues, or a fear of intimacy may be signs of PTSD in women.

Signs of PTSD in Children

Children, too, can experience PTSD, and their signs may manifest differently than in adults. Some signs of PTSD in children include:

  • Regressive behaviors: Younger children may exhibit regression, such as bedwetting, clinging to caregivers, or exhibiting behaviors typical of a younger age.
  • Play reenactment: Children may reenact aspects of the traumatic event through play, expressing their emotions and attempting to make sense of the experience.
  • Nightmares and sleep disturbances: Nightmares, night terrors, or fear of the dark may disrupt a child’s sleep patterns following a traumatic event.
  • Academic and behavioral challenges: PTSD in children can manifest as academic difficulties, behavioral challenges, or a reluctance to engage in activities they previously enjoyed.

Recognizing these signs in various demographics is crucial for early intervention and support, facilitating the healing process for those affected by PTSD.

Warning Signs of PTSD: When to Seek Help

Recognizing warning signs of PTSD can help inform timely intervention and support. If you or someone that you care about is exhibiting the following signs, seeking professional help is crucial:

Intense and prolonged distress

If the distressing symptoms persist for an extended period, causing significant disruption to daily life, it may indicate the need for professional assistance.

Impact on relationships

Notice if PTSD symptoms are straining relationships with family, friends, or colleagues. Difficulty in forming or maintaining connections could signal the necessity for therapeutic support.

Impaired functioning

If the symptoms significantly impede your ability to function at work, school, or in social settings, it’s a clear indication to seek professional help.

Inability to cope

If coping mechanisms are ineffective, and the distress remains overwhelming, professional guidance can provide effective coping strategies tailored to the specific challenges posed by PTSD.

Isolation and withdrawal

Persistent withdrawal from social activities or isolation may be a warning sign. Seeking professional help can assist in reintegrating into social environments and rebuilding a support network.

Someone stares at the horizon in deep thought about the signs of ptsd

Suicidal thoughts or behaviors

Any indication of suicidal thoughts or behaviors requires immediate attention. Reach out to mental health professionals, helplines, or emergency services for assistance.

Escalation of symptoms

If symptoms are escalating rather than improving, it’s crucial to seek help promptly. Early intervention can prevent the exacerbation of PTSD symptoms.

Substance abuse

Turning to substances as a coping mechanism is a red flag. Seeking professional help can address both the PTSD symptoms and the co-occurring substance use issues.

Nightmares or flashbacks impacting sleep

Persistent nightmares or flashbacks affecting sleep quality may indicate the need for therapeutic intervention. Quality sleep is crucial for overall mental health.

Feelings of hopelessness

If feelings of hopelessness or despair become pervasive, seeking professional help is essential. Therapists can provide support, coping strategies, and a path towards healing.

Difficulty managing anger

If anger and irritability become difficult to manage, leading to strained relationships, seeking professional guidance can provide tools for emotional regulation.

Deteriorating physical health

Physical symptoms like headaches, digestive issues, or chronic pain may worsen if not addressed. Professional support can explore the mind-body connection and promote overall well-being.

Remember, reaching out for help is a sign of strength. Mental health professionals, including therapists, counselors, and psychiatrists, are trained to assist individuals experiencing PTSD. If you or someone you know is displaying warning signs, do not hesitate to seek the support necessary for healing and recovery.

Treatment for PTSD

APA (American Psychological Association) recommends the following treatments for PTSD:


CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) targets the interplay between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It addresses current problems, symptoms, and aims to modify patterns that impede daily functioning.


CPT (cognitive processing therapy) is a specialized form of CBT that helps people in modifying and challenging unhelpful beliefs related to trauma.

Cognitive therapy

Derived from CBT, cognitive therapy focuses on altering pessimistic evaluations and memories of trauma to interrupt disruptive behavioral and thought patterns.

Prolonged exposure

This specific CBT form teaches individuals to gradually approach trauma-related memories, feelings, and situations. By facing avoided triggers, individuals learn that these memories are not dangerous and need not be avoided.

Brief eclectic psychotherapy

Combining elements of CBT with a psychodynamic approach, this form of psychotherapy focuses on changing emotions of shame and guilt while emphasizing the patient-therapist relationship.


EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) is a structured form of therapy encouraging brief focus on trauma memories while at the same time experiencing bilateral stimulation, usually in the form of guided eye movements). This is associated with a reduction in the vividness and emotion associated with trauma memories.


NET (narrative exposure therapy) helps individuals establish a coherent life narrative to contextualize traumatic experiences. This form of therapy is often applied in group treatment for refugees.


Four medications –  fluoxetine, paroxetine, and venlafaxine – have conditionally received recommendations for PTSD treatment.


What are the signs of PTSD?

Signs of PTSD can manifest as intrusive memories, flashbacks, nightmares, and intense emotional distress triggered by reminders of a traumatic event.

What are the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder?

Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder include persistent avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, negative changes in mood and cognition, heightened arousal and reactivity, and alterations in one’s beliefs and feelings.

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Get Treatment for PTSD at Connections

If you or a family member needs treatment for a mental health condition like PTSD, we offer a variety of suitable programs at Connections Mental Health in Southern California. Our team of mental health professionals blends science-based and holistic interventions to help you restore functioning and improve overall well-being during inpatient treatment.

Our beachside treatment center provides a nurturing environment welcoming all those looking for peace and stability while working on mental health issues with peers who have lived experiences of similar issues. To ensure that you get the personalized care you need, we admit no more than six individuals at any one time.

Whether you or a loved one is battling post-traumatic stress disorder, we can help you recalibrate your life at Connections Mental Health.

Call 844-413-0009 today and learn how you can initiate recovery from PTSD in California.

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