Post-Partum Depression: Signs, Symptoms, & Treatment

April 1, 2024

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During and after pregnancy, the body and mind undergo significant transformations. If someone experiences persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, or overwhelm, or if they find themselves struggling with feelings of detachment toward their baby for more than two weeks during or after pregnancy, this may indicate postpartum depression. Read on to learn more about effective treatments, including therapy and medication, for this distressing but manageable condition.

What Is Post-Partum Depression?

Postpartum depression, sometimes known as perinatal depression, manifests as a depressive state that develops after welcoming a new baby. This condition is not uncommon, impacting as many as 1 in 7 mothers following childbirth.

Symptoms of postpartum depression include pervasive feelings of emptiness, an absence of emotion, and extreme sadness. The condition can also trigger mood swings, fatigue, and a persistent sense of despair well into the postnatal period.

Although postpartum depression is a serious health issue, there are many effective treatments available that provide significant relief and recovery. If you’re battling postpartum depression, remember that you’re not in this alone and recovery is within your reach. The emotions associated with postpartum and perinatal depression are completely valid and are never a reflection of your fault or failure.

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Signs of Post-Partum Depression

Physical and observable indicators of post-partum depression include:

  • Disrupted sleep patterns: Significant deviation from normal sleep habits, such as extreme insomnia or excessive sleeping, that becomes noticeable by others.
  • Altered eating habits: Drastic increase or decrease in appetite and weight, which can be observed by those close to the person.
  • Decreased energy: Visible lack of energy or motivation to engage in previously enjoyed activities or daily routines.
  • Neglect of personal care: Observable decline in personal hygiene or self-care practices, indicating a lack of interest or energy.
  • Physical restlessness or slowness: Others may notice unusual physical agitation or lethargy in movements and actions.

Behavioral and interpersonal signs may include any or all of the following:

  • Withdrawal from social interactions: A marked reduction in social engagements and interactions with friends and family.
  • Irritability with partners or other children: Increased impatience or frustration directed at loved ones, often out of character.
  • Difficulty bonding with the baby: Struggles in establishing a connection with the newborn, as seen by others in caregiving or emotional interactions.
  • Expressed feelings of inadequacy: Vocalizing concerns or beliefs about not being a good mother or being unable to care for the baby properly.

Symptoms of Post-Partum Depression

Emotional and psychological symptoms of post-partum depression include:

  • Persistent sadness: A deep sense of sadness or emptiness that doesn’t seem to lift, affecting mood for most of the day, nearly every day.
  • Excessive guilt or worthlessness: Intense feelings of guilt or worthlessness, often focusing on perceived inadequacies as a parent or partner.
  • Anxiety and panic attacks: Overwhelming feelings of anxiety or panic that can disrupt daily functioning and decision-making.
  • Mood swings: Severe emotional fluctuations, from deep despair to intense irritability or anxiety, without a clear trigger.
  • Loss of interest: A significant decrease in interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities.

Cognitive and perceptual symptoms may include:

  • Difficulty concentrating: Challenges in focusing, remembering details, or making decisions, impacting daily tasks and interactions.
  • Distorted self-perception: Negative beliefs about being a parent or doubts about being able to care for the baby.
  • Intrusive thoughts: Recurrent, unwanted thoughts of harming self or baby, which can be frightening and distressing.
  • Detachment from reality: In severe cases, experiencing episodes of confusion or disorientation, losing touch with reality.

Developing an awareness of these indicators is the first step toward seeking help and starting on the path to recovery. How long can postpartum depression last, then?

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How Long Does Post-Partum Depression Last?

The length of time post-partum depression lasts can vary significantly from person to person. While some mothers may experience symptoms for a few months, others might face them for a year or longer. Generally, without treatment, this form of depression can persist, potentially impacting the well-being of both the mother and the child.

Early intervention and treatment are key to shortening the duration of post-partum depression. With the right therapy, medication, and support, many people begin to see improvements within a few months, although it’s important to continue treatment as recommended by a healthcare provider to prevent relapse.

Post-Partum Depression Treatment

Seek prompt medical guidance if you’re experiencing signs of postpartum depression. A tailored treatment plan can significantly improve your well-being and quality of life. Effective management of postpartum depression often involves a combination of therapies, including medications, counseling, and support networks.


Antidepressants can be highly effective for treating post-partum depression. SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) like fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil) are widely prescribed due to their effectiveness and minimal side effects.

Atypical antidepressants and older drugs like TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants) or MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) may also prove beneficial for treating post-partum depression.

Brexanolone, administered intravenously over 60 hours, offers an alternative for those who haven’t found success with other treatments. This was the first medication to gain FDA-approval for post-partum depression.

Finding the right medication requires patience, as the effectiveness of antidepressants varies depending on individual response. Beyond this, it can take 6 to 8 weeks for the full benefits of antidepressants to manifest.

Hormone therapy

The dramatic shifts in estrogen and progesterone levels after someone gives birth are believed to contribute to postpartum depression, making hormone therapy a potential treatment avenue. That said, there are many possible side effects, including weight changes and nausea, so consult your physician if you wish to explore the potential of hormone therapy for treating post-partum depression.

Talk therapies (psychotherapies)

CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) has proven particularly effective, offering strategies to alter negative thought patterns and enhance coping mechanisms. Combining CBT with medications may offer superior results than either treatment alone.

Supportive measures and natural remedies

While professional treatment will streamline recovery, incorporating lifestyle changes and self-care can lead to further improvements. Healthy eating, gentle exercise, meditation or yoga, and time spent outdoors can complement your treatment plan, offering additional relief and wellness benefits. Dealing with postpartum depression is challenging, so prioritize self-care and seek support from loved ones and support groups. These networks provide understanding, shared experiences, and encouragement.

Postpartum depression, although daunting, is treatable with a comprehensive approach. Remember, reaching out for help is a sign of strength, and with the right support, you can move beyond this challenging time and embrace a more positive future.

Post-Partum Depression FAQs

How common is post-partum depression?

Post-partum depression is relatively common, affecting about 1 in 7 women after childbirth.

Why does post-partum depression happen?

Post-partum depression occurs due to a combination of hormonal changes, psychological adjustment to motherhood, and lifestyle factors. The sudden drop in hormones after delivery, along with sleep deprivation and the stress of caring for a newborn, can contribute to its development.

When can post-partum depression begin?

Post-partum depression can begin anytime within the first year after childbirth, although it most commonly manifests within the first three weeks after delivery. Recognizing the signs early can guide timely support and appropriate treatment.

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Get Treatment for Post-Partum Depression at Connections

While depression during and after pregnancy might be fairly common, that doesn’t mean that you need to deal with these feelings alone. Reach out to Connections Mental Health in Southern California if you feel that you need help recalibrating your life as it enters a new chapter.

Choose inpatient treatment at our small beachside facility and benefit from a welcoming, inclusive environment that removes you from distractions and triggers, enabling you to focus on your well-being. We admit no more than six individuals at one time, ensuring that you get personalized care combined with the support of peers grappling with similar issues.

For effective and evidence-based mental health treatment, call 844-759-0999 right away.

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